The Western Ghats is considered as one of the global biodiversity hot-spots. The Western Ghats comprises of over 5000 vascular plants, of which about 30% of which are endemic to the Ghats. Western Ghats also has over 450 species of birds 35% endemic, 140 mammal species ( around 20% endemic) and 260 reptile species (over 60% endemic). The range also has a number of fresh water fishes and a number of invertebrates most of which are endemic to the region. Similarly, a number of amphibians are endemic to the Western Ghats and the area has become a hotspot of discovery of new species of frogs in the last decade.
The biodiversity of the Western Ghats, the diversity of plants and animals, microbes as well as the Agro-biodiversity are described here.